From biggest to smallest, they are the Pacific, the Atlantic, the Indian, the But most of them—95 percent—are invertebrates, animals that don't have a called the rain forests of the sea because of the wide variety of animals found there. Estuaries are areas where rivers and oceans meet and have a mix of Wild Beats. The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the . Instead, in the IHO publication, the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans were The proposal for the name Southern Ocean won 18 votes, beating the is described as the point where the Indian and Southern Oceans meet. The Maldives, located in the Indian Ocean, have around 1, islands and sandbanks. A lagoon with crystal clear water encircles all the.
Exploration of the Southern Ocean was inspired by a belief in the existence of a Terra Australis — a vast continent in the far south of the globe to "balance" the northern lands of Eurasia and North Africa — which had existed since the times of Ptolemy. The doubling of the Cape of Good Hope in by Bartolomeu Dias first brought explorers within touch of the Antarctic cold, and proved that there was an ocean separating Africa from any Antarctic land that might exist.
Ferdinand Magellanwho passed through the Strait of Magellan inassumed that the islands of Tierra del Fuego to the south were an extension of this unknown southern land. InAbraham Ortelius published his first map, Typus Orbis Terrarum, an eight-leaved wall map of the world, on which he identified the Regio Patalis with Locach as a northward extension of the Terra Australisreaching as far as New Guinea. The search for this great south land was a leading motive of explorers in the 16th and the early part of the 17th centuries.
Francis Drakelike Spanish explorers before him, had speculated that there might be an open channel south of Tierra del Fuego. When Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire discovered the southern extremity of Tierra del Fuego and named it Cape Horn inthey proved that the Tierra del Fuego archipelago was of small extent and not connected to the southern land, as previously thought.
Subsequently, inAbel Tasman showed that even New Holland Australia was separated by sea from any continuous southern continent.
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Portrait of Edmund Halley by Thomas Murrayc. InYves Joseph Kerguelen sailed from France with instructions to proceed south from Mauritius in search of "a very large continent. He was sent out again to complete the exploration of the new land, and found it to be only an inhospitable island which he renamed the Isle of Desolation, but which was ultimately named after him.
James Cook Famous official portrait of Captain James Cook who proved that waters encompassed the southern latitudes of the globe. Painting of James Weddell 's second expedition indepicting the brig Jane and the cutter Beaufroy.
The obsession of the undiscovered continent culminated in the brain of Alexander Dalrymplethe brilliant and erratic hydrographer who was nominated by the Royal Society to command the Transit of Venus expedition to Tahiti in The command of the expedition was given by the admiralty to Captain James Cook.
On 16 March, the approaching winter drove him northward for rest to New Zealand and the tropical islands of the Pacific. This point, reached on 30 Januarywas the farthest south attained in the 18th century.Amazing Facts About Gulf Of Alaska Where 2 Oceans Meet But Dont Mix
With a great detour to the east, almost to the coast of South America, the expedition regained Tahiti for refreshment. Within the first year, half of the Pilgrims who set out from Europe on the Mayflower had perished.
In desperation the Pilgrims initially survived by eating corn from abandoned fields, raiding villages for stored food and seed, and robbing graves at Corn Hill. Squanto was introduced to the Pilgrims in the spring ofbecame friends with them, and taught them how to hunt and fish in order to survive in New England.
He taught the Pilgrims how to plant corn by using fish as fertilizer and how to plant gourds around the corn so that the vines could climb the cornstalks. Due to his knowledge of English, the Pilgrims made Squanto an interpreter and emissary between the English and Wampanoag Confederacy. What really happened at the first Thanksgiving in ? The Pilgrims did not introduce the concept of thanksgiving; the New England tribes already had autumn harvest feasts of thanksgiving.
To the original people of this continent, each day is a day of thanksgiving to the Creator.
In the fall ofWilliam Bradford, the governor of the Plymouth Colony, decided to have a Plymouth harvest feast of thanksgiving and invited Massasoit, the Grand Sachem of the Wampanoag Federation, to join the Pilgrims.
Massasoit came with approximately 90 warriors and brought food to add to the feast, including venison, lobster, fish, wild fowl, clams, oysters, eel, corn, squash and maple syrup. Massasoit and the ninety warriors stayed in Plymouth for three days. These original Thanksgiving foods are far different from the meals prepared in modern Thanksgiving celebrations.
Squanto died inbut Massasoit outlived the era of relative peace in colonial New England. Colonial authorities found justification to kill most of the Pequot men and enslave the captured women and their children. Pequot slaves were sent to Bermuda and the West Indies.
In the official number of Pequot people living in Connecticut was Similar declines in Native population took place throughout New England as an estimated three hundred thousand Indians died by violence, and even more were displaced, in New England over the next few decades. Looking at this history raises a question: Why should Native peoples celebrate Thanksgiving?
Many Natives particularly in the New England area remember this attempted genocide as a factual part of their history and are reminded each year during the modern Thanksgiving. They gather at the feet of a statue of Grand Sachem Massasoit of the Wampanoag to remember and reflect in the hope that America will never forget.
Do I celebrate Thanksgiving? But I do take advantage of the holiday and get together with family and friends to share a large meal without once thinking of the Thanksgiving in I think it is the same in many Native households. I turn to the Internet to find out what Native people think of Thanksgiving. A few of the responses I have received over the years, beginning with the most recent and ending with comments from when I unfortunately didn't note where people were writing from: Thanksgiving was a blending of two different cultures, one culture helping another to survive.
The historical knowledge we have now of what was actually taking place may not be the same as what was being experienced in those days. Our assessment now may not be fair because of all that the Native people have endured.
Being the only Native American classroom teacher at a public school, raised mostly in an urban setting steeped heavy in traditional American holidays, and around many other native people on weekends while traveling to dance, this has always been a challenging question for me that I cannot claim to know the answer for. I see many other teachers I work with who are not native struggle with knowing how to address the issue comfortably.
I have to say, I have fear that if we avoid the issue altogether, Native people will be forgotten about. I have seen some teachers decide to stop teaching about Native Americans for fear of offending. I personally get sad when I see that happen.
I know Thanksgiving is a controversial subject, and there are so many viewpoints.
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I share the modern theme of Thanksgiving, which I think has good intentions—family and community. I have also chosen to teach about Native American culture, even more heavily in November because of Thanksgiving, even though it is no longer a part of the curriculum. I have found ways to integrate it while teaching something that I think is important. I do an assembly for the students in which we dance, and I emphasize how it is not possible to teach everything there is to know about Native Americans in just one assembly.
I emphasize the diversity among native people. Regardless of all the political views of Thanksgiving, we can all find something to be thankful for! Except for the last four years, the twenty years before that I spent 95 percent of my Thanksgivings at the table of my brother-in-law. Our gatherings were about giving thanks for what we had.
As for Native American history being left out of teaching, it is an outrage. Educate our fellow educators on how to teach it. It would be a great way to help others teach courses and show how to respect the culture.
We have family members with addiction issues. The kids get to eat, which my mom loves. And we are thankful not only to survive colonization, but also grateful to feed family. We celebrate and give thanks for our loved ones' being able to be together again. But when my daughter was young and the realization hit, as it does all young American Indians, she said to me"Do you think we should have helped them? Could we just start over and go forward?
We can't change the past, but we can work for peace and unity in the future. History needs to be taught correctly in our schools—that is what needs to happen. My daughter had to write a paper about Big Tree, Satank, and Satanta. She interviewed Satanta's great-grandson, who was in his 90s, and told the story as he told it to her, including their transport from Fort Sill and how the feather was turned into a knife as they passed the giant tree, causing the soldiers to shoot and kill Satank.
Ecuador via Bozeman, Montana: It's important to share the whole, true story of the first Thanksgiving. Many of us were told a fairytale lie that led us to believe the same old story: Colonization was good for everyone and colonization was relatively peaceful the violence was necessary, the ends justify the means.
Now, a lot of us are learning more, and that comes from educating ourselves with the help from those who do know. I will say this, the generic idea of thanksgiving, or taking the time to be with family and friends and give thanks for all the blessings in our lives, the big and small, is a great practice and should happen more often. I wonder how we can turn a negative into a positive? Can we have an honest Thanksgiving?
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Can we move forward and, if so, where do we begin? Santa Fe, New Mexico: My family and I celebrate Thanksgiving, not so much in the way that the "Pilgrims" may have done with the Indians. We give pause, and acknowledge all of the blessings that we received in the past year.
We think of family and friends; of the homeless; of those away from family in hospitals, elders in nursing homes, those incarcerated, the soldier men and women overseas, around the world, standing watch and guarding our freedom. We think of those in mourning, whose family have gone ahead of them. We also think of those in school, no matter what age. And, finally, we pray for traveling mercies said for folks traveling home. We are thankful each day for Creator's gifts but on Thanksgiving, it seems we focus and are concentrated in our thoughts about these blessings.