Brief Notes on Akbar's Relations with the Rajputs
Many Indian rulers started accepting Mughal supremacy, and the Mughals campaigned and fought against rulers who did not obey them. The Rajputs married. On both the occasions, he declared Jihad, assumed the title of ghazi after his success and raised minarets of the heads of the Rajputs. But he married Humayun. Jul 22, The evolution of relations between the Mughals and the Rajputs during the reign of Akbar can be placed within more than one historical context.
He fought stubbornly against the Mughuls throughout his life and succeeded in recapturing larger part of Mewar excluding the fort of Chittor. He died in A. After his death, his son, Amar Singh also continued to resist the Mughuls. Akbar, thus, failed to subdue Mewar though he certainly reduced its power of resistance.
Mewar, on its part, fought gloriously but failed to check the expansionist policy of Akbar. The Rajput policy of Akbar was a grand success. All Rajput states, except Mewar, accepted the sovereignty of Akbar. Those very Rajputs who were fighting against the Muslim rulers for the last three hundred fifty years submitted to Akbar and participated in the expansion of the Mughul empire. It was the greatest success of Akbar.
Mughals and Rajputs
It helped in expanding and strengthening the Mughul empire. It is wrong to say that Akbar married Rajput princess with a view to humiliate the Rajputs.
Prior to him, the Muslim rulers had forced the Hindu and Rajput ladies to marry them. On the contrary, Akbar neither forced any Rajput ruler to enter into matrimonial alliance with him nor asked their princesses to accept Islam before marrying them.
Besides, he honoured his wives, allowed them to follow their own religion, respected their Rajput relatives and gave them high offices in the state. It is also wrong to say that the Rajputs had become cowards. If Akbar would have tried to oppress them, they would have fought against him as much as they fought against Aurangzeb later on. They became loyal supporters of the Mughul emperor because Akbar offered most liberal terms to them in exchange of their services and friendship to him.
Akbar simply desired that the Rajputs should accept his sovereignty, pay him annual tribute, surrender their foreign policy to him, support him with their forces when necessary and regard themselves as one with the Mughul empire. In return, Akbar was prepared to give them liberty in their internal matters, honour them, offer them services in the state according to their merit and provide them complete religious freedom.
Besides, one fact more has to be kept in mind that while Akbar annexed the territories of all those Muslim rulers whom he defeated, he did not annex the territory of any Rajput ruler except that of Gondwana. The liberality of Akbar was the primary reason of the success of his Rajput policy. Jahangir continued the policy of his father in the same manner. He was liberal towards the Rajputs though the number of the Rajputs on higher posts decreased during his reign.
He also attempted to force Mewar to submission which had refused it so far. He sent several Mughul forces, one after another, to invade Mewar right from the beginning of his reign. Rana Amar Singh fought against the Mughuls with the zeal like his father. He refused to submit though entire Mewar was practically destroyed and the Mughuls established military posts everywhere. But, ultimately, he agreed for peace on the advice of Prince Karan and some of his nobles and the treaty was signed with the Mughuls in A.
The Rana accepted the sovereignty of the Mughul emperor and, instead of himself, deputed his son and successor, prince Karan to attend the Mughul court. The Rana was not asked to enter into matrimonial alliance with the Mughul emperor. Jahangir returned to the Rana all territory of Mewar including the fort of Chittor on condition that it would not be repaired.
Thus ended the long conflict between Mewar and the Mughuls. The Ranas of Mewar observed this treaty till Aurangzeb attempted to conquer Mewar during his reign. It would be wrong to conclude that Rana Amar Singh had not tried to safeguard the honour of Mewar and had disgraced the name of his father, Rana Pratap by accepting the peace treaty with the Mughuls.
Amar Singh also fought as valiantly as Rana Pratap against the Mughuls and submitted only when he was advised by his son and successor, Prince Karan and some of his nobles.
After that too, he was not satisfied and shortly handed over the administration to his son and passed his remaining life at a lonely place, Nauchauki. Besides, the subjects of the Rana needed peace. The fight between the Mughuls and Mewar had been so long and hard that Mewar was practically ravaged. Peace was necessary for its reconstruction. Jahangir, on his part, offered very liberal terms to Rana.
He, in no way, tried to dishonour the Rana. On the contrary, he returned all territory of Mewar and the fort of Chittor to him. Shah Jahan also pursued the policy of his father and grandfather.
He gave them all due honour and befriended them though the number of the Rajputs on higher posts went on decreasing. Yet, the Rajputs remained loyal to him. Aurangzeb reversed the policy which was enunciated by Akbar and pursued by Jahangir and Shah Jahan. He was a bigot and the Rajputs were the greatest obstacle in persuance of his policy against the Hindus.
Aurangzeb, therefore, attempted to destroy the power of the Rajputs and annex their kingdoms. There were three important Rajput rulers at that time, viz. All the three were at peace with the Mughuls when Aurangzeb ascended the throne. Raja Jai Singh was responsible for the defeat of prince Shah Shuja in the war of succession and after the battle of Samugarh had joined Aurangzeb.
Raja Jaswant Singh fought against Aurangzeb at the battle of Dharmat, joined him a little later, but again left his side when he was going to give battle to Shah Shuja.
Yet, when there remained no chance of success of prince Dara Shukoh, he was successfully persuaded by Raja Jai Singh to accept the service of Aurangzeb. Rana Raj Singh, the ruler of Mewar did not participate in the war of succession and, later on, accepted Aurangzeb as the emperor.
But, Aurangzeb never kept faith in the loyalty of these Rajput rulers. Raja Jaswant Singh was deputed to defend the north-western frontier of the empire.
Two of his sons died fighting against the Afghan rebels and he himself died at Jamrud in Afghanistan in A. Aurangzeb was waiting for this opportunity. At that time, there was no successor to the throne of Marwar. He occupied Marwar immediately and, with a view to disgrace the ruling family, sold the throne of Jaswant Singh for rupees thirty-six lakhs. It seemed that the existence of Marwar was lost forever. But, Marwar was saved.
While returning from Afghanistan, the two wives of Raja Jaswant Singh gave birth to two sons at Lahore. One of them died but the other named Ajit Singh remained alive. Durga Das, the commander-in-chief of the Rathors came to Delhi with the prince and requested Aurangzeb to hand over Marwar to Ajit Singh.
Aurangzeb did not agree. He offered to keep Ajit Singh with him, till he would have become young. Durga Das, having recourse to a stratagem, succeeded in escaping to Marwar with the prince and his mother. Ajit Singh was declared the ruler of Marwar and the war of independence of Marwar began from that time. Rana Raj Singh of Mewar, who realized that it was in the interest of Mewar also to fight against the Mughuls, gave support to Marwar.
The revolt of Akbar failed and he fled to Maharashtra under the protection of Durga Das. Aurangzeb offered peace to Mewar and it was accepted. Maharana Pratap Maharana Pratap was known to have wielded a khanda sword. He vowed that he would liberate Mewar from the Mughals; until then he would not sleep on a bed, would not live in a palace, and would not have food on a plate thali. Akbar tried to arrange a treaty with Rana Pratap, but did not succeed.
Finally, he sent an army under Raja Man Singh in Rana Pratap was defeated at the Battle of Haldighati in June Rana Pratap escaped from the battle and started guerrilla warfare with the Mughals. Ultimately he was successful in liberating most of the Mewar, except the fort of Chittorgarh. The Bargujars were the main allies of the Ranas of Mewar. Akbar sent Salim to attack Mewar in Octoberbut he stopped at Fatehpur Sikri and sought permission from the emperor to go to Allahabadand went there.
In Salim sat on the throne and took the name of Jahangir. An indecisive battle was fought at Debari. The Mughal emperor sent Mahabat Khan in He was recalled inand Abdulla Khan was sent. No conclusive victory could be achieved. The disunity among various clans of Rajwada allowed Mewar to be conquered.
Ultimately Jahangir himself arrived at Ajmer inand appointed Shazada Khurram to fight against Mewar. Khurram devastated the areas of Mewar and cut the supplies to the Rana. With the advice of his nobles and the crown prince, Karna, the Rana sent a peace delegation to Prince Khurram, Jahangir's son. Khurram sought approval of the treaty from his father at Ajmer.
Jahangir issued an order authorising Khurram to agree to the treaty. The Rana of Mewar accepted Mughal sovereignty. Mewar and the fort of Chittorgarh was returned to Rana. The fort of Chittorgarh could not be repaired or renovated by Rana. The Rana of Mewar would not attend the Mughal court personally. The crown prince of Mewar would attend the court and give himself and his army to the Mughals.
It was not necessary for the Rana to establish a marriage alliance with the Mughals. This treaty, considered respectable for both parties, ended the year-long enmity between Mewar and the Mughals. This enraged the Rathoresand when Ajit SinghJaswant Singh 's son, was born after his death, the Marwar nobles asked Aurangzeb to place Ajit on the throne.
Brief Notes on Akbar’s Relations with the Rajputs
Aurangzeb refused, and tried to have Ajit assassinated. This rebellion united the Rajput clans, and a triple-pronged alliance was formed by the states of MarwarMewarand Jaipur. One of the conditions of this alliance was that the rulers of Jodhpur and Jaipur should regain the privilege of marriage with the ruling Sesodia dynasty of Mewar, on the understanding that the offspring of Sisodia princesses should succeed to the throne over any other offspring.
This stipulation would lend itself to many future conflicts. Foreign accounts[ edit ] James Toda British colonial official, was impressed by the military qualities of the Rajputs and their centuries-old struggle against invaders but his only significant biographer notes that he was "manifestly biased". Rajast'han exhibits the sole example in the history of mankind, of a people withstanding every outrage barbarity could inflict, or human nature sustain, from a foe whose religion commands annihilation; and bent to the earth, yet rising buoyant from the pressure, and making calamity a whetstone to courage Not an iota of their religion or customs have they lost.
A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. A historical review of Hindu India: The Colors of Violence: