Ezra and Nehemiah | The Center for Biblical Studies
While Cyrus may have been influenced by the religion of his gods (see Ezra ), The Bible states how 'the Lord stirred up the spirit of Cyrus, King of Persia. Most of them had become bound to the new land by ties of marriage and. It is just and practically necessary to treat the books of Ezra and Nehemiah . He speaks of the king of Persia (Ezra i.1), and of Darius the Persian (Neh. xii). Ezra–Nehemiah is a book in the Hebrew Bible found in the Ketuvim section, originally with the . King of Persia, Events in the wider region, Correlation with Ezra–Nehemiah. Cyrus (–), Fall of Babylon, , Edict of Cyrus: directive to the.
The difficulty that presents itself in the book of Ezra is that events surrounding letters which King Artaxerxes received from, and wrote to, the enemies of the Jews see Ezra 4: If it is a proven fact that Darius served as king before Artaxerxes, why is the kingship of Darius recorded in the book of Ezra subsequent to the reign of Artaxerxes recorded in Ezra 4: The second Darius lived too late in history to have been contemporary with the rebuilding of the temple.22. Artaxerxes, Ezra, and Nehemiah
Thus, one cannot solve the question at hand simply by suggesting that the Darius cited in Ezra was really Darius II, who lived after Artaxerxes I. This solution is unacceptable, however, since Artaxerxes II lived several years after the events recorded in Ezra and Nehemiah. So what is the answer?
Why is the kingship of Darius recorded in the book of Ezra following events connected with the kingship of Artaxerxes Ezra 4: One possible solution to this difficulty is that Ahasuerus and Artaxerxes of Ezra 4: Since Persian kings frequently had two or more names, it is not unfathomable to think that Cambyses and Smerdis also may have gone by the names Ahasuerus and Artaxerxes see Wilson, ; see also Fausset, Another explanation to this perceived dilemma is that the information concerning the kings of Persia in Ezra 4 is grouped according to theme rather than by chronology.
Instead of having a record where everything in chapter four is in sequential order, it is reasonable to conclude that verses serve as a parenthetical comment and that Ahasuerus and Artaxerxes 4: This remnant of a once-great nation was still greatly oppressed, and it was only with distress that they rebuilt the city over several decades. In this lesson, we concentrate on Zerubbabel and the Jews' first return and attempt at rebuilding.
The three main leaders of this time were Zerubbabel, Ezra, and Nehemiah. Zerubbabel led the people in the reigns of the Persian kings Cyrus and Darius.
The Persian Empire, the Return of the Jews, and the Diaspora
Ezra and Nehemiah were leaders in the reign of Artaxerxes. The return of the exiles to Judah, and the rebuilding of Jerusalem, was accomplished in three main stages.
The first and main party returns with Zerubbabel BC. They rebuild the temple.
Ezra and Nehemiah
A second party returns with Ezra about 80 years later. They make spiritual and religious restoration and reform.
A third wave returns with Nehemiah in BC. They rebuild the city walls and gates but not many houses. When Zerubbabel led the first party of exiles back to Jerusalem, the first thing they rebuilt was the altar so that worship and sacrifice could begin again.
They also managed to lay the foundations for a new temple.