RNA and protein synthesis review (article) | Khan Academy
Therefore, the gene must first make a copy of itself (called messenger RNA - mRNA), which is smaller and more portable than DNA and is able to leave the. Genes on the chromosomes are made of segments of DNA which contai more virulent ones!) the genes are RNA sequences itself which code for proteins. The Relationship Between Genes and Proteins. Proteins, encoded by The Central Dogma: DNA Encodes RNA and RNA Encodes Protein. The central dogma.
This continues until the complete sequence of RNA is synthesized.
Because the red strand serves as template, the sequence of RNA will be identical to the blue strand of DNA, only with the base U instead of the base T. So now we have an RNA strand.
RNA and protein synthesis review
A protein is made from amino acids, these form a strand. I show the protein strand as a linear line, but in reality complex interactions between amino acids lead to 3 dimensional forms that are essential for the functioning of the protein.
During this translation, 1 amino acid is added to the protein strand for every 3 bases in the RNA. So a RNA sequence of 48 bases codes for a protein strand of 16 amino acids. A certain combination of 3 bases always gives the same amino acids, so we can put the translation into a table see below. We take the first 3 bases from the figure above as example, which are AUG. There we see our third base and our combination.
In this way we can translate the complete RNA sequence into the protein sequence.
DNA, RNA, and the Flow of Genetic Information - Biochemistry - NCBI Bookshelf
In the cell But how does this work in an actual cell? And why make RNA first and then protein?
Why not make protein from the DNA directly? After transcription the RNA is relocated to the cytoplasm of the cell, here it is translated into protein. So the separation of nucleus and cytoplasm prevents protein from being made directly from DNA.
But there are other reasons why RNA is made. I will name a few, but not all there are so many. First, the DNA is well protected in the nucleus against everything that floats around in the cytoplasm, which prevents the DNA from getting damaged. Another reason is that we only have 1 copy of DNA in each cell, but sometimes we need a lot of the same protein.
Genes must be expressed to exert an effect, and proteins regulate such expression. One such regulatory protein, a zinc-finger protein zinc ion is blue, protein is redmore DNA and RNA are long linear polymers, called nucleic acids, that carry information in a form that can be passed from one generation to the next. These macromolecules consist of a large number of linked nucleotides, each composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and a base. Sugars linked by phosphates form a common backbone, whereas the bases vary among four kinds.
DNA, RNA and protein – the Central Dogma
Genetic information is stored in the sequence of bases along a nucleic acid chain. The bases have an additional special property: The base pairing results in the formation of a double helix, a helical structure consisting of two strands.DNA replication and RNA transcription and translation - Khan Academy
These base pairs provide a mechanism for copying the genetic information in an existing nucleic acid chain to form a new chain. Although RNA probably functioned as the genetic material very early in evolutionary history, the genes of all modern cells and many viruses are made of DNA. These exquisitely specific enzymes copy sequences from nucleic acid templates with an error rate of less than 1 in million nucleotides.