Secondary Curriculum / Science Assessments and Probes
PASCO Digital Library contains hundreds of free experiments and lab activities. of each part that makes up the whole object. Preview Lab Icon, Essential Physics Icon. 10 . of chromosomes to explore the topics of meiosis and genetic variation. to determine the mole-to-mole ratio in the balanced chemical equation. Lab Notebook Each week entry worth 15 points x 10 = points. If absent .. You will find in the links and downloads column “Chemical Models,. Properties .. Hydrolysis reactions result in the breakdown of polymers into monomers. We will .. Describe the relationship between photosynthetic rate and light intensity. 3. All; Biology I; Chemistry; Earth/Environmental; Physical; Science L Meiosis; 7. Cells and Energy for Life; Chemistry; Earth History; Ecological Relationships Atomic Structure-Nuclear Chemistry-Mole Conversions-Electron Configuration; Unit 3 Chemical Origins of Life video; Chemical Reactions Lab; Chemical vs.
In some cells, such as in budding and fission yeasts, the spindle is built within the nucleus closed mitosiswhereas in others, the nuclear envelope breaks down and the condensed chromosomes are captured by microtubules in the cytoplasm open mitosis.
This difference in the spatial organization of the mitotic cell has ramifications for the machinery controlling mitosis. The dramatic reorganization of the cell at mitosis must be coordinated in both time and space. There are several key temporal events: We will discuss the biochemistry behind each of these temporal events, in turn, but it is important to emphasize that the control mechanisms are also spatially organized.
Our understanding of this spatial organization has improved dramatically with advances in the technology to detect gradients of activity in cells, and this has revealed the importance of local gradients of antagonistic protein kinases and phosphatases, GTP-binding protein regulators, and ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitylases, to name only a few of the more prominent examples reviewed in Pines and Hagan The Main Switch Entry to mitosis appears to have switch-like properties in most organisms studied; once a cell is committed to mitosis, there is no going back see Fig.
But how the machinery is made switch-like does differ between systems. Nevertheless, the core of the switch seems to be the same in all cells: A combination of genetics, cell biology, and biochemistry led to the identification of this protein kinase as the key regulator of mitosis, which is conserved from yeast to man Doree The kinase is a heterodimer composed of a Cdk subunit and an activating cyclin subunit.
Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Chemistry or concurrent enrollment in Chemistry. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10, 11, or In Aquatic Science, students study the interactions of biotic and abiotic components in aquatic environments, including impacts on aquatic systems. Investigations and field work in this course may emphasize fresh water or marine aspects of aquatic science depending primarily upon the natural resources available for study near the school.
Students who successfully complete Aquatic Science will acquire knowledge about a variety of aquatic systems, conduct investigations and observations of aquatic environments, work collaboratively with peers, and develop critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.
Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.
A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter.
Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled.
These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment. The student is expected to: The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom.
Students know that aquatic environments are the product of Earth systems interactions. The student conducts long-term studies on local aquatic environments.
Local natural environments are to be preferred over artificial or virtual environments. The student knows the role of cycles in an aquatic environment. The student knows the origin and use of water in a watershed. The student knows that geological phenomena and fluid dynamics affect aquatic systems. The student knows the types and components of aquatic ecosystems.
The student knows environmental adaptations of aquatic organisms.
The student knows about the interdependence and interactions that occur in aquatic environments. The student understands how human activities impact aquatic environments.
This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or In Astronomy, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving.
Students study the following topics: Students who successfully complete Astronomy will acquire knowledge within a conceptual framework, conduct observations of the sky, work collaboratively, and develop critical-thinking skills.
The student recognizes the importance and uses of astronomy in civilization. The student develops a familiarity with the sky. The student knows our place in space. The student knows the role of the Moon in the Sun, Earth, and Moon system. The student knows the reasons for the seasons. The student knows that planets of different size, composition, and surface features orbit around the Sun. The student knows the role of the Sun as the star in our solar system.
The student knows the characteristics and life cycle of stars.
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The student knows the variety and properties of galaxies. The student knows the scientific theories of cosmology.
Control of the mitotic exit network during meiosis
The student recognizes the benefits and challenges of space exploration to the study of the universe. Biology One CreditAdopted This course is recommended for students in Grade 9, 10, or In Biology, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific practices during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving.
Students in Biology study a variety of topics that include: Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not currently scientifically testable.
Scientific methods of investigation are experimental, descriptive, or comparative. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods scientific methods and ethical and social decisions that involve science the application of scientific information. All systems have basic properties that can be described in space, time, energy, and matter. A demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations; and B demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.
The student uses scientific practices and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. A know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection b 2 of this section; B know that hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence.
Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories; C know scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers.
19 TAC Chapter , Subchapter C
A analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student; B communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, published journal articles, and marketing materials; C draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services; D evaluate the impact of scientific research on society and the environment; E evaluate models according to their limitations in representing biological objects or events; and F research and describe the history of biology and contributions of scientists.
The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions and that viruses are different from cells. A compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including their complexity, and compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity; B investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis and transport of molecules; and C compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral reproduction, and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus HIV and influenza.
The student knows how an organism grows and the importance of cell differentiation. A describe the stages of the cell cycle, including deoxyribonucleic acid DNA replication and mitosis, and the importance of the cell cycle to the growth of organisms; B describe the roles of DNA, ribonucleic acid RNAand environmental factors in cell differentiation; and C recognize that disruptions of the cell cycle lead to diseases such as cancer.
The student knows the mechanisms of genetics such as the role of nucleic acids and the principles of Mendelian and non-Mendelian genetics.
A identify components of DNA, identify how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA, and examine scientific explanations for the origin of DNA; B recognize that components that make up the genetic code are common to all organisms; C explain the purpose and process of transcription and translation using models of DNA and RNA; D recognize that gene expression is a regulated process; E identify and illustrate changes in DNA and evaluate the significance of these changes; F predict possible outcomes of various genetic combinations such as monohybrid crosses, dihybrid crosses, and non-Mendelian inheritance; and G recognize the significance of meiosis to sexual reproduction.
The student knows evolutionary theory is a scientific explanation for the unity and diversity of life. A analyze and evaluate how evidence of common ancestry among groups is provided by the fossil record, biogeography, and homologies, including anatomical, molecular, and developmental; B examine scientific explanations of abrupt appearance and stasis in the fossil record; C analyze and evaluate how natural selection produces change in populations, not individuals; D analyze and evaluate how the elements of natural selection, including inherited variation, the potential of a population to produce more offspring than can survive, and a finite supply of environmental resources, result in differential reproductive success; E analyze and evaluate the relationship of natural selection to adaptation and to the development of diversity in and among species; and F analyze other evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, and recombination.
The student knows that taxonomy is a branching classification based on the shared characteristics of organisms and can change as new discoveries are made. A define taxonomy and recognize the importance of a standardized taxonomic system to the scientific community; B categorize organisms using a hierarchical classification system based on similarities and differences shared among groups; and C compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals.
The student knows the significance of various molecules involved in metabolic processes and energy conversions that occur in living organisms. A compare the functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids; B compare the reactants and products of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of energy, energy conversions, and matter; and C identify and investigate the role of enzymes.
The student knows that biological systems are composed of multiple levels. A describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of regulation, nutrient absorption, reproduction, and defense from injury or illness in animals; B describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of transport, reproduction, and response in plants; and C analyze the levels of organization in biological systems and relate the levels to each other and to the whole system.
The student knows that biological systems work to achieve and maintain balance. A summarize the role of microorganisms in both maintaining and disrupting the health of both organisms and ecosystems; and B describe how events and processes that occur during ecological succession can change populations and species diversity.
The student knows that interdependence and interactions occur within an environmental system.